The lower limbs are the most affected by the type of traumas that mainly strike footballers, both professional and amateur. The knee is the most commonly affected joint: the direct and indirect strains and blows associated with increasingly intense and fast movements mainly affect the area between the knee and the ankle. The most common lesions are from twists as in lesions of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL), the Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL), the meniscus and cartilage. Over 90% of ankle injuries are sprains, which are often underestimated in diagnosis and treatment.
Direct and indirect muscle injuries are very frequent, especially in the thigh area. Medical conditions caused by excessive physical strain are becoming far more common in footballers. An increase has been seen in injuries to the upper limbs, especially fractures or dislocations of the collar bone and forearm. When it comes to sports played by young people, accidental injuries are common between the ages of 8 and 12, while between 12 and 16 the most common are injuries due to excessive physical strain, tendon problems, inflammation of the joints, lower back pain and muscular injury and sprains. Over the age of 16, especially in the fittest young football players, the types and incidence of traumatic lesions are closer to those of an adult player.