Confirmation de l'OMS que la pollution cause le cancer

La pollution de l'air provoque le cancer du poumon. Hier, cette conclusion, qui a déjà été rapportée dans de nombreuses études scientifiques publiées ces dernières années, a pris une nouvelle tournure après avoir été déclarée par l'Organisation mondiale de la santé (QUI). En fait, le Centre international de recherche sur le cancer (CIRC), l'agence spécialisée dans le cancer de l'Organisation mondiale de la santé, dont la mission est d'étudier les substances qui causent cette maladie et leur réaction, a annoncé hier que la contamination avait été classée au niveau 1, le plus élevé de l’échelle, qui inclut des substances qui ne laissent aucun doute dans les cercles scientifiques quant au danger qu’elles représentent.

The research study described by the Agency, of which a summary is to be published in next week’s edition of The Lancet Oncology, notant que 2010 Décès 223,000 l'initiative du cancer du poumon étaient attribuables à la pollution.

La principale causes de cette “dirty air” are véhicules, energy production, industrial and agricultural emissions and residential heating systems. This is the first time that IARC, which produces the famous “encyclopaedia of carcinogens”, has studied and classified pollution in general. Previously, it had always concentrated on the individual substances that make up this dirty air that we breathe, especially in large cities, like the gas produced by diesel engines or metals.

“Although the composition of air pollution and levels of exposure can vary dramatically between locations, the conclusions apply to all regions of the world”, IARC stated yesterday in a press release. “Research shows that the risk of cancer increases with increased exposure. It’s a fairly linear relationship”, explains Esteve Fernàndez, epidemiologist with the Catalan Institute of Oncology and specialist in tobacco, who has helped write some of the Agency’s monographs.

“The risks are probably not as high as those linked to tobacco. In fact the risk for a fumeur of le nombre de cas de cancer est 20 plus élevé qu'un non-fumeur. But far more people are exposed to air pollution”, he added.

“These studies take a long time, even up to a year, and scientists from all over the world help out, independently checking and editing all the works published about every subject”, he explained. In this case, IARC assures that it has checked over 1000 studies published in scientific reviews. The research analyses distinct elements present in environmental pollution, especially in the particles.

“The WHO had already classified diesel suie cancérogène en juin 2012. Si nous gardons à l'esprit que dans nos villes, le principal cause de la pollution de l'air est le trafic routier, the WHO’s observation is perfectly consistent. Indeed, some components like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (released by the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass), arsenic, cadmium and nickel have been regulated, in terms of their quantities in the air, by a European directive due to the fact that they are carcinogenic agents”, says Xavier Querol, pollution expert and researcher for the Spanish National Research Council.

“Now we know that atmospheric pollution is not only a general health risk, but also causes death from cancer”, states Kurt Straif, head of the IARC’s classification of carcinogens. “Our task has been to evaluate the quality of the air we breathe worldwide, instead of concentrating mainly on specific pollutants”.

“The effects of pollution on health are multiple. Les polluants les plus dangereux sont les particules ultrafines et l'ozone, bien qu’il existe également d’autres substances influentes. L’effet cancérogène est l’un des risques les plus importants, mais il en existe aussi: respiratoire, problèmes cardiovasculaires et cérébrovasculaires “, explains Querol. IARC has suggested in one study that there is enough evidence to back up the theory of exposure to pollution as a cause of lung cancer and as another factor in the risk of developing bladder cancer. “Constantly breathing in these particles causes damage to the cells that cover our respiratory system, resulting in the accumulation of genetic failures which make the cells proliferate uncontrollably and, in the end, allow tumours to grow”.

“In my opinion, the WHO has sent a clear signal to politicians that the problem is serious and that they must act fast to improve air quality”, concludes Querol.