Post-arrest temperature management in children
Statement on post cardiac arrest temperature management in children. November 2021. ILCOR Pediatric Life Support (PLS) Task Force
The Pediatric Life Support (PLS) task force of ILCOR would like to provide an updated evidencereview and commentary on the recommendations for pediatric post-cardiac arrest temperature management
This follows the recently updated consensus on science and treatmentrecommendations for Temperature Management in Adult Cardiac Arrest by the Advanced LifeSupport (ALS) task force.
Post-arrest temperature management in children: previous pediatric recommendations in 2020
The PLS task force provided the following treatment recommendations (1) following the ILCORcommissioned systematic review by Buick et al (2) which included the two main randomized controltrials (RCTs) using similar protocols in the pediatric OHCA and IHCA. (3, 4)
We suggest that for infants and children who remain comatose following ROSCfrom OHCA and IHCA, targeted temperature management be used to maintain acentral temperature of 37.5 °C or less (weak recommendation, moderate-certainty evidence).
On the basis of 2 randomized trials and 8 retrospective observational cohortstudies that provided comparative data on favourable neurological outcome,survival, and in-hospital adverse events, there is inconclusive evidence to supportor refute the use of therapeutic hypothermia (32 °C to 34 °C) compared withtherapeutic normothermia (36 °C to 37.5 °C) (or an alternative temperature) forchildren who achieve ROSC but remain comatose after OHCA or IHCA.
In the original CoSTR (5) the PLS task force reported a preference for the use of induced hypothermia32°C to 34°C as opposed to active control of temperature at normothermia 36°C to 37.5°C for OHCA.
There were insufficient data on patients with IHCA to make a preference in that population. The taskforce also noted that fever is potentially harmful and should be avoided.
Temperature management in children: pediatric updated literature search
On Sept 7th 2021 an Evidence Update was performed by the PLS task force following the originalsearch strategy and research question published by Buick et al. (2)
No new RCTs were identified.Eight additional publications fulfilled inclusion criteria; however, seven were secondary analysis ofsubgroups of the Therapeutic Hypothermia After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest (THAPCA) RCT primary trialdata for the OHCA, IHCA or combined cohorts. (6-12) One new retrospective observational cohortstudy was identified from Australia comparing induced hypothermia (<35°C) and normothermia (36-36.5°C).
The THAPCA secondary analysis data showed no difference between temperature groups(32-34 versus 36-37.5°C) in any of the following subgroups; ECMO or ECPR, hypotension post-ROSC,open chest resuscitation, combined cohort OH and IH and acute kidney injury. In the Australianstudy by Magee et al, there was no difference in survival; however, after regression adjustment, induced hypothermia was associated with significant improvement in two health related quality oflife measures (higher physical and psychosocial scores). (13)
The task force did not identify sufficientnew data to proceed to repeating the full systematic review and the task force no longer wished toexpress a preference.
Advanced Life Support (ALS) task force recommendations and context of PLS task force evidencereview in 2021
The main treatment recommendations from the ALS task force CoSTR, Aug 30th 2021, were updatedfollowing a task force led systematic review by Granfeldt et al (14) and the publication of the ‘TTM2’study (15) and can be found here [https://costr.ilcor.org/docume…].
They suggest, in adults, actively preventing fever bytargeting a temperature ≤37.5 for those patients who remain comatose after ROSC from cardiacarrest (weak recommendation, low certainty evidence) and acknowledge the uncertainty of whethersubpopulations of cardiac arrest patients may benefit from targeting hypothermia at 32-34°C.
Although the PLS and ALS task force recommendations are similar, it is important to highlight thatthere are notable differences between pediatric cardiac arrest and adult cardiac arrest populations.
First, pediatric studies of OHCA often focus on all etiologies of cardiac arrest (predominantlyhypoxemic etiology) compared to the majority of adult studies focusing on a primary cardiacetiology.
Secondly, pediatric IHCA occurs predominantly in the populations already cared for in theintensive care setting, while adult IHCA is almost evenly distributed in intensive care and non-intensive care settings.
Thirdly, most pediatric OHCA and IHCA occur in the younger pediatric agerange, and there are sufficient developmental biology and epidemiology differences between adultsand children to support that adult study findings and recommendations may not be applicable to thepediatric population.
Pediatric recommendations in 2021: Post-arrest temperature management in children
|The PLS task force recommendations from 2020 for the pediatric populationtherefore remain unchanged in 2021 with minor wording clarification oftemperature targets:
We suggest that for infants and children who remain comatose followingROSC from OHCA or IHCA, active control of temperature be used to maintaina central temperature ≤ 37.5°C (weak recommendation, moderate-certaintyevidence).
There is inconclusive evidence to support or refute the use of induced
|hypothermia (32°C to 34°C) compared with active control of temperature atnormothermia (36°C to 37.5°C) (or an alternative temperature) for childrenwho achieve ROSC but remain comatose after OHCA or IHCA.|
Knowledge gaps in pediatrics
The PLS task force recognizes that there remains uncertainty about the application of temperaturemanagement in pediatric IHCA and OHCA (target temperature, timing, duration, technique);moreover, in circumstances where hypothermia may be considered, there is still no evidence toguide rewarming. Further pediatric research and clinical trials are urgently needed to answer theseimportant questions.
B. R. Scholefield, AM. Guerguerian, J. Tijssen, J. Acworth, R. Aickin, D. Atkins, A. DeCaen, TB. Couto,M. Kleinman, D. Kloeck, G. Nuthall, I. Maconochie, V. Nadkarni, Gene Y. Ong, A. Reis, A. Rodriguez-Nunez, S. Schexnayder, P. Van de Voorde, KC Ng on behalf of the Pediatric Life Support Task Force,ILCOR.
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- Meert KL, Guerguerian AM, Barbaro R, Slomine BS, Christensen JR, Berger J, et al.Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: One-Year Survival and Neurobehavioral OutcomeAmong Infants and Children With In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. Critical Care Medicine. 2019;47(3):393-402.
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- Topjian AA, Telford R, Holubkov R, Nadkarni VM, Berg RA, Dean JM, et al. Association ofEarly Postresuscitation Hypotension With Survival to Discharge After Targeted TemperatureManagement for Pediatric Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Secondary Analysis of a RandomizedClinical Trial. JAMA Pediatrics. 2018;172(2):143-53.
- Topjian AA, Telford R, Holubkov R, Nadkarni VM, Berg RA, Dean JM, et al. The association ofearly post-resuscitation hypotension with discharge survival following targeted temperaturemanagement for pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2019;141:24-34.
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- Magee A, Deschamps R, Delzoppo C, Pan KC, Butt W, Dagan M, et al. TemperatureManagement and Health-Related Quality of Life in Children 3 Years After Cardiac Arrest. PediatricCritical Care Medicine. 9000.
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- Dankiewicz J, Cronberg T, Lilja G, Jakobsen JC, Levin H, Ullen S, et al. Hypothermia versusNormothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(24):2283-94.