Abdominal regions: semeiotics, anatomy and contained organs

The skin of the abdomen is divided into 9 regions, called abdominals: 3 median (epigastrium, peri-umbilical region and hypogastrium) and 3 lateral (hypochondrium, flank and iliac fossa)

In semiotics and topographical anatomy, the abdomen can be divided into nine regions (abdominals) which, from top to bottom, are as follows


  • right hypochondrium: containing liver, gallbladder, duodenum and right lung;
  • left hypochondrium: containing stomach, left lung and spleen;
  • epigastrium (between right and left hypochondrium): containing liver, transverse colon, duodenum, pancreas and stomach.

Between the upper and lower abdominal regions:

  • right flank: containing ascending colon and small intestine;
  • left flank: containing descending colon and small intestine;
  • mesogastrium (between right and left flank): small intestine.


  • right iliac fossa: containing cecum, ascending colon and vermiform appendix;
  • left iliac fossa: containing descending colon and sigmoid colon;
  • hypogastrium (between right and left iliac fossa): containing sigmoid colon, rectum, uterus and bladder.

The two right and left midclavicular lines are demarcated by extending downwards (lines perpendicular to the ground passing through the middle of the clavicles on a frontal plane) and another 2 perpendicular lines are drawn:

  • subcostal line: line parallel to the ground, tangent to the costal arches of the tenth pair of ribs;
  • bisiliac line: line parallel to the ground joining the two anterior superior iliac spines.

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