Urine tests: glycosuria and ketonuria values

Checking glycosuria and ketonuria can be performed directly by the patient. This is a unique test, as most of the reagent cards used to perform these tests are now able to perform both tests on the same stick

This check is done on urine by wetting the tip of the stick.

The detection times are sufficiently short, in the order of 1-2 minutes.

Glycosuria and ketonuria, three types of test can be carried out

  • instantaneous;
  • fractionated;
  • 24-hour.

Instantaneous glycosuria

Instantaneous glycosuria, are the most commonly used, can be performed at any time of the day, without too much sacrifice.

It is usually advisable to perform them before the three main meals.

This test gives a fairly accurate summary view of the day’s progress, and allows us to make any corrections on Insulin doses or diet for the following days.

Fractional glycosuria

These are recommended at intervals of several weeks.

They are performed on urine collected between one meal and the next, over a 24-hour period.

They tell us whether our diet is correct or requires adjustment, especially with regard to the distribution of starches and sugars.

In each fraction we need to check

  • the volume, using a graduated container;
  • the glycosuria (after mixing the urine well);
  • the glycosuria in relation to volume: volume (ml) * glucose (g/l) / 1000.

24-hour glycosuria

This test can be performed with the same deadline as the previous ones, perhaps by combining the different 24-hour fractionated urine collections together.

It gives an indication of the overall progress during the day on both the adequacy of insulin doses and the quality of nutrition.

The night before urinate and discard urine.

In the following hours, collect all the day’s urine, including the evening urine (the latter at the same time as the discarded urine) in one container.

It is then necessary to check

  • the volume, by means of a graduated container;
  • the glycosuria (after mixing the urine well);
  • the glycosuria in relation to the volume: volume (ml) * glucose (g/l) / 1000.

This check helps us not only to understand the trend of glycaemia in the daily average, but also the amount of urine excreted during the day.

Indeed, in the presence of some decompensation, it is easy to notice an increase in urine in the 24 hours (over two litres).

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