Guyon's test (three-glass test): what it is and what it indicates in relation to haematuria

The Guyon test (or ‘three-glass test’) is a diagnostic investigation used in medical semeiotics, which is used when there is blood in the urine (haematuria), to identify its origin

This test is named after the famous French surgeon Félix Guyon.

How is the Guyon test performed?

The patient is asked to collect urine emitted during urination in three different containers.

What does the Guyon test indicate?

  • if blood collects in the first receptacle: the origin of the haematuria is at the level of the urethra (due to the washing of the last urinary tract exerted by the flow of urine);
  • if the origin of haematuria is at the level of the bladder, since the red blood cells tend to settle at the bottom of the bladder itself, they appear at the end of urination (when the contraction of the bladder reaches its maximum, causing the emptying of even the most declivous part);
  • if the origin of haematuria is renal, the red blood cells mix with the urine and appear equally distributed throughout the vessels.

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